Card games in Italy
At present this page on Italian games is organised according to the type of cards used.
Most parts of Italy have their own regional pattern with latin or French suits. Latin suited cards, with suits of swords (spade), batons (bastoni), cups (coppe) and coins (denari), are prevalent in the North-East (where the pip cards have curved swords and straight batons which cross in a trellis), and in the South (where the pip cards have short separate swords and batons). Elsewhere the regional patterns are French suited, with suits of spades (picche), clubs (fiori), diamonds (quadri) and hearts (cuori). Most of the regional cards come as 40 card packs; 52 card versions of the North-Eastern Italian regional patterns are also made for certain games.
Various forms of Italian suited Tarot cards (Tarocchi) are used in Bologna, Piemonte and a few places in Sicily. The international French suited 52 card pack is also widely available. German suited cards are used in the German speaking South Tyrol. The 40 card single suited Cuccù pack is used in some regions in the north.
- 40 cards with Italian suits
- 52 cards with Italian suits
- 40 cards with French suits
- 78 card Tarocco Piemontese
- 62 card Tarocco Bolognese
- 64 card Tarocco Siciliano
- 97 card Minchiate
- 40 card Cuccù pack
- 36 or 40 cards with German Suits
- 52 cards with French suits
- Other web pages, software and online games
40 cards with Italian suits
Each suit has king (re), cavalier (cavallo), jack (fante), 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, ace (asso).
Most Italian games use a 40 card pack. Popular games include
- Scopa and Scopone
- Briscola and Briscola Chiamata
- Tressette and its variants Terziglio , Mediatore and Spizzichino
- Sette e Mezzo.
There are also games confined to particular regions, such as Madrasso in Venice, Ciapanò in Lombardy, Beccaccino, Trionfo and Mattazza in Romagna, Coteccio in Trieste, Maniglia in southern Latium, Zecchinetta and Schembil in Sicily and children's games such as Camicia.
52 cards with Italian suits
Each suit has king (re), cavalier (cavallo), jack (fante), 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, ace (asso).
Although nearly all Italian packs have 40 cards, there are three regional patterns made with 52 cards: the Bresciane, which is used to play Cicera; the Trevigiane, which is used for the similar games Scaraboción in Venice and Foraggio in Padova, and also for Sancagna, Gilet alla Greca and Trionfetti around the Venice lagoon; and the Trentine, which is used to play Dobellone.
40 cards with French suits
Each suit has king (re), queen (donna / dama / regina), jack (fante), 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, ace (asso).
These cards are used in the North-West of Italy (Piemonte, Liguria, Tuscany and Milano) for the same games that are played elsewhere with the Italian suited packs, such as Scopa, Briscola and Tressette. Cirulla, a complex variation of Scopa, is played in Genoa using a 40-card pack of the local French suited pattern (carte genovese). The same Genoese pack is used in Sardinia for Mariglia.
78 card Tarocco Piemontese
21 trumps, double ended, named and numbered 1-21 in arabic numerals, the fool (matto) numbered 0 and the four suits consisting of king (re), queen (donna), cavalier (cavallo), jack (fante) and pip cards from 1 to 10.
The basic game is Scarto, and there is also a game called Mitigàti, with enhanced gambling features. These games are now rather rare, but are still played in and around Torino. Even rarer is the Tarocchi game played near Asti with 54 cards from the Piemontese pack. For details of both see A History of Games Played with the Tarot Pack - Volume 1 (Edwin Mellen Press, 2004), by Michael Dummett and John McLeod.
In Piedicavallo, Tarocchi is played with 62 cards from this pack, omitting the lowest four cards of each suit.
62 card Tarocco Bolognese
Angel, World, Sun, Moon, 16 - 5, four moors (two identical), Bègato; Matto plus four suits consisting of king (re), queen (donna), cavalier (cavallo), jack (fante) ace (asso) and pip cards from 6 to 10. The cards and games were sometimes called Tarocchino, the diminutive of Tarocco referring to the reduction of the Bolognese pack from 78 to 62 cards, which probably occurred in the early 16th century. Nowadays, the cards are usually known in Bologna as carte lunghi because they are physically longer that the cards of the Piacentine pattern that are used for other popular games such as Tressette.
A number of related games are played with these cards in and around Bologna. The partnership game Ottocento is one of the more popular.
64 card Tarocco Siciliano
Small cards: single-ended numbered trumps from 1 to 20 plus the unnumbered Miseria and Fuggitivo; 4 Italian suits consisting of king (re), queen (donna), cavalier (cavallo), jack (fante) ace (asso) and pip cards from 5 to 10 plus 4 and ace of coins only.
Michael Dummett discovered that Tarocchi is played in several villages in Sicily, each with its own variation of the game. The page Sicilian Tarocchi has rules of these games.
97 card Minchiate
There are 40 trumps: the Trumpets, World, Sun, Moon and Star and trumps with Roman numbers from XXXV down to I. The fool is unnumbered. There are four Italian suits of 14 cards - pip cards from 1 - 10 and the usual four pictures, except that the cavalli are depicted as centaurs and the jacks of coins and cups are replaced by maids. Some packs included a 98th card, apparently an extra unnumbered trump, whose exact function is unknown.
The game of Minchiate, also known as Germini, first appeared in Florence in the 16th century. From there it spread to Rome and throughout southern Italy and was extremely fashionable in the 17th and 18th centuries. Its popularity declined during the 19th century, and in the early 20th century regular production of the special cards ceased and the game died out. However, since the late 20th century several reproduction packs have been published, primarily for collectors, and some enthusiasts have tried to revive interest in playing this fine game..
There are 40 cards - 2 each of: Cuckoo, Bragon, Horse, Cat, Inn, X, VIIII, VIII, VII, VI, V, IIII, III, II, I, O, Bucket, Mask, Lion, Fool.
According to A.G. Smith: "The Cambio Packs and the Games played with them" - part III (The Playing-Card Volume XX No 1) the cards are used in Bergamo, the Abruzzo area, the Basilicata and Molise for the trick-taking games: Zifuli, Cucco (Cöch) and Cuccù a Trionfo.
Originally they were used in a round game for a large number of players in which the aim is not to be left holding the lowest card. This traditional game of Cucù or Lu Stù is still played in the province of Teramo.
36 or 40 cards with German suits
Each suit has Ace (As or Sau), King (König), Over (Ober), Under (Unter), 10, 9, 8, 7, 6. The 6 of bells has signs of the other suits as well and is inscribed WELI.
These "Salzburger Spielkarten" are used in the in the German speaking parts of Südtirol (South Tyrol) and as far South as Trento. The games played include Perlaggen, Watten and Bieten, all of which are also played in the Austrian Tyrol. These games only require 33 of the cards - the sixes other than the WELI are not used. The fact that the pack is made with 36 cards may indicate that it is also used for some other Tyrolean 36-card games, perhaps something similar to Dobbm.
The Italian card makers Dal Negro and Modiano also make a 40-card version of the pack including fives. Domenico Starna informs me that this is used in Südtirol - Alto Adige for Tressette, the ranking of cards being 10, 9, ace, king, over, under, 8, 7, 6, 5, so that the 10, 9, ace and pictures are counting cards. It is also possible to play Tressette with only 32 Salzburger playing cards without sixes and fives, dealing 8 cards to each player. Also in Niederdorf - Villabassa and in Innichen - San Candido they play Blind Watten with 40 cards. In Niederdorf - Villabassa they also play Bieten with 40 cards. In Toblach - Dobbiaco, Blind Watten is played 36 cards, using all the sixes but no fives - see the Watten page for details.
52 cards with French suits
The international 52 card pack is used in Italy as elsewhere for Bridge and (in multiple form with jokers) for Canastone. Since the late 20th century a two deck canasta-based game Burraco has become extremely popular. A double 52-card deck is also used for the rummy games Scala Quaranta and Machiavelli.
Other web pages, software and online games
The Italian site Tretre included an encyclopedia of Italian card games and a history of playing-cards.
Alberosa specialises in software for Italian Rummy games: Ramino, Scala Quaranta and Burraco.