This page is based on information from Raj Nair, John Hanson and Jeevan Ravi.
- Players and Cards
- Deal and Bidding
- The Play
- Variations: Cot - Thani - 3-player game - 6-player game - 56
- Other 28 Web Sites and Online Games
This is one of a group of South Asian trick-taking games in which the Jack and the Nine are the highest cards in every suit. It is almost certain that they are related to the European family of Jass games, which originated in the Netherlands. Possibly they were brought to the Indian subcontinent from South Africa, by Asians who had been influenced by the Afrikaans game of Klawerjas.
28 (Irupathiyettu) is played in India in the southern province of Kerala. It is closely related to the similar north Indian game 29, and both are probably descended from 304, which is still played in Sri Lanka.
Players and Cards
28 is usually played by four players in fixed partnerships, partners facing each other.
32 cards from a standard 52-card pack are used for play. There are eight cards in each of the usual "French" suits: hearts, diamonds, clubs and spades. The cards in every suit rank from high to low: J-9-A-10-K-Q-8-7. The aim of the game is to win tricks containing valuable cards. The values of the cards are:
|Jacks||3 points each|
|Nines||2 points each|
|Aces||1 point each|
|Tens||1 point each|
|Other cards (K, Q, 8, 7)||no points|
This gives a total of 28 points for cards, hence the name of the game.
Deal and Bidding
Deal and play are counter-clockwise; the cards are shuffled by the dealer and cut by the player to dealer's left. Four cards are then dealt to each player, one at a time.
Based on these four cards, players bid for the right to choose trumps. Each bid is a number, and the highest bidder undertakes that his or her side will win in tricks at least the number of points bid. The player to dealer's right speaks first, and must bid at least 14. The only exception is if the first player has no point cards at all - only Kings, Queens, 8s and 7s. In this case instead of bidding 14 this player may (but is not obliged to) demand a redeal. All players throw in their cards, there is a new shuffle and cut and the same dealer deals again. The other three players have no right to demand a redeal at this stage however poor their cards may be.
After the first player has bid, subsequent players, in counter-clockwise order, may either bid higher or pass. The auction continues for as many rounds as necessary until three players pass in succession. There is one restriction during the bidding: if you wish to bid over your partner's bid, your left hand opponent having passed, you must bid at least 20.
The final bidder chooses a trump suit on the basis of his or her four cards, and places a card of this suit face down. The trump indicator card is not shown to the other players, who therefore will not know at first what suit is trumps: it remains face down in front of the bidder until at some point during the play someone calls for the trump suit to be exposed.
The dealer then completes the deal, giving four more cards to each player, so that everyone has eight. After everyone has seen their eight cards, the final bidder or the bidder's partner may increase the bid if they wish, but if they do so the new bid must be at least 24.
The play can be divided into two phases: before and after the bidder's face down trump card is exposed.
The player to the dealer's right leads to the first trick; players must follow suit if possible, the highest card of the suit led wins the trick, and the winner of each trick leads to the next. If you have no card of the suit led you have two options:
- You may discard any card. This card cannot win the trick (unless the trump is exposed during the current trick and the card you played turns out to have been a trump).
- Before playing a card, you may call for the bidder's face down trump to be exposed. In this case, the bidder must turn this trump card face up for all to see, and it is then added to the bidder's hand. Having called for the trump to be exposed, you must play a trump to this trick if you have one; if you have no trump you may discard any card. From the moment when the trump is exposed, the play enters the second phase - see below.
During the first phase, the face down trump is not considered as belonging to the bidder's hand. If the bidder holds no card of the suit that was led, the bidder may discard any card of a non-trump suit without declaring trumps. Alternatively, if the suit led was not the trump suit, the bidder may reveal the trump card and play it.
During this phase the bidder is subject to the following restrictions:
- The bidder is not allowed to lead a card of the concealed trump suit unless there is no alternative. If after winning a trick, the bidder has nothing else in hand except cards of the trump suit then one of these must be led. The bidder must not reveal the concealed trump card at this point and the led card does not have the power of a trump. If the bidder wins the seventh trick and trump has not yet been revealed, then the bidder will reveal the trump card and lead it to the last trick.
- If another player leads the concealed trump suit, the bidder must either follow suit from hand or discard a card of a different suit. The bidder is not allowed to reveal the trump suit on this trick.
- If another player leads a non-trump suit and the bidder has no cards of this suit, the bidder is not allowed to play a trump card from hand. The bidder must either discard a card of a different non-trump suit or reveal the concealed trump card and play it, thereby beginning phase two.
During the first phase, cards of the (concealed) trump suit have no special effect: each trick is won by the highest card of the suit led, even if it also contains cards of the suit that is subsequently revealed as trumps.
At the moment when the bidder's face down card is exposed, this suit becomes trumps. Each trick is now won by the highest trump in it. Tricks that contain no trumps are won by the highest card of the suit led. Players must follow suit if possible: if unable to follow, they may play a trump or discard a card of another suit, as they like. As before, the winner of each trick leads to the next. The bidder is under no special constraints and is now free to lead any suit, including trumps.
- If a situation is reached during the first phase in which the bidder has no trumps in hand, and another player leads the trump suit, the bidder can play any card, since the face down trump is not yet part of the bidder's hand. Of course the bidder has the option to expose the face down trump and play it, but if it is a low trump that cannot win the trick, it will probably be better to save it for later.
- Cards of the trump suit only become trumps from the moment that the trump card is exposed. Any cards of that suit that were previously played to the trick do not count as trumps.
Example. In phase 1 South leads the 8. Having no hearts, East discards the A without asking for trumps, hoping that West will win the trick. North also has no hearts and asks for trumps: the bidder exposes a club and North trumps with the Q. West follows suit with the A. This trick is won by North. The Queen of clubs is a trump but the Ace of clubs does not count as a trump because it was played before the trump was exposed.
- If a player leads a card of the trump suit in phase 1 and another player who does not have that suit asks for the trump to be shown, then players who follow suit after the trump has been revealed will be playing trumps, and their cards will beat cards of the same suit played before the trump was revealed, even if their rank in the suit is lower.
Example: North leads the J. West, who has no spades, asks for the trump to be revealed and South, who made trumps, shows the 8. West discards a diamond. South plays the K. At this point South is winning the trick, since South's spade is a trump and North's is not. If East now plays the 9 East will win the trick, since the 9 is the highest trump played to the trick.
In certain circumstances the deal is annulled. The cards are thrown in, the shuffle and cut are repeated and there is a new deal by the same dealer.
- If any player's eight-card hand includes all four jacks, the player must show them and the cards are redealt.
- If it turns out that the bidding team has all 8 trumps, and the other team has none at all, the cards are redealt. This will of course not be known until the trump suit is revealed.
When all eight tricks have been played, each side counts the card points in the tricks it has won. The bidding team needs at least as many card points as the bid to win; otherwise they lose.
The cumulative scores of the two teams are recorded on a piece of paper. The number of game points scored depends on the bid, not on the exact number of points taken in tricks.
- If the bid was 19 or less, the bidding team wins 1 game point if successful, but loses 2 game points if they fail.
- For bids from 20 to 24, the bidding team wins 2 game points or loses 3 game points.
- For bids of 25 or more, the bidding team wins 3 game points or loses 4 game points.
Bids from 20 to 24 are known as 'Honours'.
No Jack discard in an unplayed suit
Some play that if you hold no cards of the suit that is led, it is illegal to discard the Jack of a suit that has not yet been led. It is however, legal to trump with the Jack of trumps even if trumps have not yet been led.
Pointless hand may demand a redeal
Some play that any who player has a hand of 8 pointless cards (i.e. holds no Jacks, Nines, Aces or Tens) may show it and annul the hand. There is a new deal by the same dealer.
Some play a variation called 'Cot': if the winning team wins all the tricks they score twice the usual number of game points. To prevent this, their opponents can offer to surrender before the end of the play. If the winning side accepts the surrender, play ends and they just score the single amount for the bid; if the winning side insists on playing on and wins all the tricks, they win a double game, but if they lose any tricks at all, they lose a double game.
John Hanson reports a different form of Cot: in this version it is bid after only four cards each have been dealt. The remaining cards are not dealt and the Cot bidder has to win all four tricks. The cards of the Cot bidder's partner are placed face up on the table. I am not sure how this form of Cot is scored.
Some play that the bidder can announce "Thani" (or "Adi") after all eight cards have been dealt. This is an undertaking that the bidder win every trick alone without help from partner. The bidder leads to the first trick. If the bidder wins every trick, the bidder's team scores 4 points; if not they lose 5 points. (Presumably the Thani is lost if the bidder's partner wins a trick.)
John Hanson reports a version in which "Thani" can be announced before the seventh trick by a player who has won the first six tricks. I am not sure how this form of Thani is scored.
It is possible for three players to play 28. In this case the Sevens and Eights are removed from the pack, leaving 24 cards. The compulsory minimum bid for the first player is 12, and the highest bidder plays alone against the other two in temporary partnership.
28 can also be played by six players, using a pack expanded to 36 cards by adding the sixes, which are the lowest cards of the suits, and like other low cards have no point value. The game is played between three teams of two, partners sitting opposite, and all the cards are dealt out, three at a time, before the bidding. The minimum bid is 12. The team that bids highest plays against the other four players as opponents.
56 is a more sophisticated variant of 28, also played in Kerala, using a double pack.
Other 28 Web Sites
Here is an archive copy of Raj Nair's 28 page.